Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Snowfall is actually a leader on the house pearly whites whitening market. The proprietary whitening formula is commended for being capable to get rid of also the most difficult stains without inducing sensitiveness. SHORTCUTSProfessional-quality teeth whitening at homeOver 500,000 happy customersSuperior results without resulting in sensitivityHelps take out difficult coffee as well as red or white wine stains30-days cash back guaranteeSnow creates teeth lightening beneficial without any office brows through, unpleasant strips, or even cluttered use.

The Snow procedure is an LED-activated teeth whitening body that targets all type of spots. This includes those dued to wine, tea, coffee, as well as cigarette. The patent-pending light-accelerated technology results in no side results, as the wavelengths are certainly not dangerous. It is actually FDA-approved, enamel-safe, and doesn’t induce sensitiveness. You do not require any dentist visits or prescriptions to perform the procedure coming from the convenience of your own house.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit  Snow Teeth WhiteningSerial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Snow additionally refuses to evaluate on creatures. There are actually 2 sets to choose from. The contents of each ought to last for over 90 uses. Allow’s malfunction what they have as well as exactly how to choose the very best one for you. This kit is actually Snow’s best-known item, because of which they gained their appeal.

The All-in-One kKt from Snowfall has: a wired LED mouthpiece,3 whitening sticks,1 extra-strength whitening stick, anda shade guide. The mouthpiece works along with the Snow app, thus you can handle how intensely you intend to bleach your teeth. Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening. It possesses a cable that allows you link to USB, apples iphone, and also various other cell phones.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

It may be actually apparent, however the biggest distinction in between both kits is actually the cordless functionality. Over 3 million were invested in r & d, bring in brand new functionalities possible. The components of The Wireless Charging Home Teeth Whitening Set consist of: a cordless LED mouth piece, a docking terminal,3 whitening wands,1 maximum toughness whitening stick,1 anesthetizing lotion, lip therapy, USB cord, andan instructions.

The final feature allows the therapy to be actually gotten used to your needs. It programs instantly, so all of you possess to do is activate it on the application. The mouthpiece is water-resistant. This indicates you can securely use it in the shower. What’s even more, it sanitizes on its own while charging. There is actually likewise a red-light treatment choice for your gums.

Depending on to study, it assists: remove microorganisms, lessen pearly white level of sensitivity, enhance blood flow in the gum tissues, prevent declining periodontal lines, boost bone tissue thickness, andminimize post-whitening inflammation. The docking terminal features a hidden layout, people frequently contrast the way it tries to a bluetooth audio speaker. Besides sanitizing as well as demanding the mouth piece, it likewise functions as a penholder as well as travel situation for your serum sticks.

Results are promised to become visible after 7 days of utilization. The sets are actually simple to use best away from package, therefore virtually anybody may bleach their teeth with Snowfall products. Listed below is a standard introduction: Safe forThose along with dental crowns, bridges, and also veneersTeeth with fillingsPregnant womenBreastfeeding momsSensitive dentitionAdditionally, they transport their products worldwide, so your location will not confine you.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

It is highly recommended that you comb as well as dental floss your teeth before performing the procedure. Oral health assists eliminate any meals debris and contaminations (Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening). This permits even insurance coverage of the product. You really want all surfaces of your teeth to become brightened!Moreover, cavity enducing plaque as well as germs, which sometimes receive trapped between the serum and also the teeth, make it very likely for you to experience pearly white decay or even other oral issues.

This measure is actually not needed if your dentition does not usually respond to temp or even wonderful or hard foods. It not only lowers sensitivity yet likewise builds up the tooth polish. The formula is additionally packed with minerals as well as vitamins. If you determine to use the making less sensitive product, perform this 15 moments prior to the whitening treatment and after that rinse out.

Use either the regular or even extra-strength whitening serum, depending upon the outcomes you want. Twist the wand to receive the item out. You might need to perform this approximately 30 times when you initially use it. The brush pointer will definitely aid you apply the serum. Imagine you are repainting a white colored sentry fence (Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening).

If you love your gum tissues wipe it off the very best you can. A small volume will not harm, however the product was made for teeth just. The wireless LED tool possesses a “shake to wake” function. Here are the basic directions for this component: Shake once to turn it on.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

A 3rd time for the gum procedure. Trembling it four times will certainly place it to sleep. You can easily additionally download and install the application to personalize your procedure. When you are actually done, put the illumination back in to the holder. If you have the wired mouth piece rather, merely link it up to your phone to activate it.

Keep it in for 9 to half an hour daily, 21-30 days straight. If you happen to experience some level of sensitivity, take a 1 to 3-day breather and continue the therapy later. It’s finest to perform your treatments before going to bedroom. By doing this they do not hamper consuming or even consuming.

The wireless kind is going to self-sanitize while asking for. Store your whitening sticks in the refrigerator after using them. This can easily assist them keep their toughness over a longer duration. The sets feature a source for months of requests, so it’s a good idea to take the most ideal achievable treatment of your items.

The system can easily be reviewed to a specialist procedure costing $500-$ 1,000. For a much lower rate you may do this from the convenience of your personal residence. You can easily order your Snowfall whitening package right on their website, however it’s likewise readily available on Amazon.com. Right here is a summary of the amount of Snowfall whitening items presently cost: ProductPriceAll-in-one package$ 199Wireless charging kit$ 299Extra strength refills$ 49Add-on for vulnerable teeth$ 25Serum refill sticks$ 25There are even settlement choices for those who don’t desire to be actually out the amount of money simultaneously – Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit  Snow Teeth WhiteningSerial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

This will certainly take place immediately and no bills are going to be actually sent out, so you may merely enjoy your products. There is actually also a 30-day money-back warranty and also a 5-year guarantee on electronic devices. It stands after you activate it on the Snowfall web site. SHORTCUTSProfessional-quality teeth whitening at homeOver 500,000 satisfied customersSuperior outcomes without causing sensitivityHelps take out challenging coffee as well as red or white wine stains30-days cash back assure Authority Dental accepts commission coming from third-party firms.

After viewing social networking sites flooded along with individuals raving about how remarkable the Snowfall Teeth Whitening unit is actually, I must discover out. One that integrates all the ideal pieces of pearly whites whitening and also overlooks all the poor ones? Yeah, sure (Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening). If you are a tough enthusiast that anything as well excellent to be real is actually specifically that, right here’s a teeth whitening device to confirm you incorrect.

Snow is also super inexpensive, at lower than 1/10th the cost of specialist whitening at the dental professional. Likewise, Snow Teeth Whitening does certainly not trigger sensitivity. You can easily possess your frozen yogurt as well as consume it as well! Or even is actually that cake? Either way, you may possess both when your pearly whites aren’t falling out coming from blasts of chemical therapies that white colored strips often consist of.

Honestly,. The LED ignited mouthpiece increases the whitening coming from the gel on your pearly whites leading to quicker, much longer long-term and also more dependable whitening without creating sensitivity. The LED illumination permits you to use Snowfall for a briefer time period with the very same whitening has an effect on compared to various other devices.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

These are actually true, unpaid Snow consumers’ reviews/before and also after pearly whites whitening pictures undergone our company within the last one month. These are actually genuine, overdue Snowfall consumers’ reviews/before and after teeth whitening photographes undergone us within the final thirty days. Incredible product !! Merely one that has helped me! As well as no level of sensitivity!! AMAZING!! Bought this feeling really skepitcal (Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening).

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit  Snow Teeth WhiteningSerial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Passion it !!! Finest cash I have invested in an iffy product. Eventually something that definitely measures up to its insurance claims! I have actually been actually utilizing this as well as will suggest, I’ve seen a variation after 4 times I like this product! I have actually merely used it 3 opportunities simple to use and no level of sensitivity…, I also forgot to utilize the after product for the gum tissues the first 2 opportunities! …

It performs specifically what they stated it will carry out, yes to every thing!!!! I was fairly suspicious however I am actually really pleased after 2 usages today. “The most ideal teeth whitening unit for vulnerable pearly whites” “Take pearly whites whitening to the upcoming level along with an at-home kit that rivals a browse through to your community friendly dental expert.” “Two buddies talked about exactly how white colored my teeth took care of utilizing this package merely pair of times!”.

When you order the Snowfall whitening device, you obtain the adhering to in every kit: Cream sticks LED holder Shadow guide that assists you track your development Instructions on how to make use of the systemGetting started with Snowfall is effortless, and the guide will walk you with every little thing you need to recognize on just how to utilize the whitening unit.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit  Snow Teeth WhiteningSerial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

It doesn’t measure up to a few of its own pledges, yet it is actually still a rewarding investment if you’re seeking whiter teeth, as well as is much better than a lot of other whitening products around. The Powder snow is actually fairly direct to make use of. Comb your teeth before you begin. Use the lotion to your pearly whites properly, being sure you obtain even protection.

After 10-30 moments, remove the rack as well as rinse off your teeth. Repeat this procedure over the next times and also full weeks. This process corresponds to some various other whitening items. Yet the lotion and LED lightweight exposure create it different than the majority of various other bits as well as holders. But different doesn’t always indicate better.

Pearly white were noticeably whiter after merely a couple of times of use. As well as with extended use, there was actually significant progression. Yellow pearly whites, although certainly not powder snow white, were clearly whiter. It took a bit longer than Snowfall guarantees, however the device does ship end results fairly quickly.

Permit’s encounter it. A few of one of the most addictive beverages as well as practices are actually not the absolute best for our pearly whites. Luckily, if you want white teeth, you don’t possess to bid farewell to coffee, soft drink, desserts, herbal tea, red wine, as well as smoking cigarettes because there are actually a lot of teeth whitening kits to select from (our experts still suggest that you stop the cigarette smoking practice for evident reasons). Teeth whitening is a $ 3.2 billion around the world field.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Thankfully, if you would like to save funds, there are actually a number of efficient kits that you can use in your home. There are practically two styles of kits: ones that bleach your pearly whites to take spots off and ones that literally remove the discolorations. Switched on charcoal grains have actually become rather prominent in the last few years.

Whitening trays as well as bits have been actually the standard for years and usually rely upon carbamide or hydrogen peroxide. There is a 3rd sort of teeth whitening item that just blasts your teeth with LED illumination. Nonetheless, specialists questioned by the Wirecutter claim any type of gains from this therapy are actually short-term. Simply the SmileDirectClub body in our overview utilizes this technology, but it is actually made use of together with a whitening gel.

Expectant or even nursing ladies ought to certainly not use peroxide-based whitening products. It additionally isn’t suited for youngsters under 14 years of ages. Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening. And also, you ought to not utilize peroxide for longer than pair of weeks of everyday use without the guidance of a dental professional. The FDA does not highly recommend making use of any sort of whitening gels along with a peroxide attention of greater than 18%.

You need to have to become cautious using whitening products, as Consumer Reports describes. For occasion, if your dim pearly whites result from the all-natural thinning of tooth enamel that happens with aging, whitening packages will certainly not assist you. Additionally, they can not bleach dental fillings, false teeths, veneers, dental crowns, or hats. Experts say that whitening kits are actually risk-free when made use of as routed – Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

For that reason, about a full week prior to you begin your whitening program, use a toothpaste specifically created for people along with delicate pearly whites or one that creates up enamel. As well as, bypass a time or 2 of make use of if you do experience level of sensitivity. The English Dental Publication has discharged new research that claims there is actually inadequate medical documentation to verify the cosmetic and also health and wellness perks of activated charcoal tooth pastes and grains, and also they might result in tooth decay.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

The Shine Whitening system utilizes herb substances as opposed to hydrogen peroxide or various other caustic chemicals, as well as LED lighting, to accelerate the whitening procedure. The procedure of utilizing this item corresponds to the GLO Science set, along with a gel that enters into holders that at that point match right into your mouth (Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening).

An additional incredibly effective pearly white whitening service for those individuals along with incredibly sensitive pearly whites. Unfortunately, this creates it a bit complicated to utilize. In spite of this, the system carries out work. You utilize the item twice a day for 15 moments, and after a handful of weeks,. Radiate Whitening is not as successful as Peak 3D bits or even the GLO Scientific research kit, yet it does unharmed, also if you have extremely delicate pearly whites.

Truths as well as plan the Sparkle Whitening Absolutely No Peroxide Pearly White Whitening Unit: Design: Applicator with different LED lightKit: Applicator, 2 pipes of gel, LED lightUsage: 2 15-minute uses, two times per dayCourse of treatment: 30 daysExtrinsic discolor removalActive Active ingredients: Salt bicarbonate, potassium sorbate, sodium fluoride, aloe and chamomile removes The Groom+ Design group wasn’t fairly sure whether this certifies as a package, yet it performs considerably the exact same trait as the various other products on our listing, as well as it is a lot a lot more practical to use.

You paint the gel onto your teeth, let it completely dry and also remain on your teeth for 15 mins, rinse and you’re carried out. There is no recommended size of treatment; you must see a whitening result in and it may use be whenever you possess a warm time or even a huge conference.

Extra facts on the Polar Teeth Whitening Pen: Design: Pen applicatorUsage: Quick use, then 15 minutes prior to rinsingCourse of therapy: Preliminary improvement observed in a full week or even much less and also great for touchupsIntrinsic and external tarnish removalActive active ingredient: Hydrogen peroxide With whitening strips, trays and various other units all declaring that they’re the most effective treatment for stained teeth, you could ponder why numerous whitening tooth pastes are on the market at the same time. Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Crest’s 3D White Radiance is actually greater than just toothpaste; it is actually a two-step. Two times a day, you the that entirely washes your pearly whites as well as mouth. At that point without rinsing, you the that brightens your teeth and also is actually similar to right stuff they use to wash your teeth in the dental practitioner’s workplace.

The combo isn’t as pleasant as the flavorful toothpastes on the drug store shelve, yet it’s certainly not also bad. It’s, as well (Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening). A wonderful remedy for those that are actually certainly not in a rush to lighten their teeth, or even for individuals who are intending to maintain white colored pearly whites, after a pearly whites whitening method.

More notably, the separate whitening gel with peroxide permits the system performs a better task than normal “whitening tooth pastes” which just have an abrasive combined in. You’ll discover that most whitening toothpastes brighten pearly whites through a tone or 2 maximum, but the Peak device may arrive, along with regular use over opportunity.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit  Snow Teeth WhiteningSerial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

That means 3D White Shine can easily in addition to their frontal skins. Crest’s whitening toothpaste system is less costly and also demands a lot less opportunity than various other teeth whitening solutions, and are going to brighten most teeth nearly as well as long as the paste and also gel are actually administered correctly for the lasting. Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening.

to check the Rate on Amazon.com. * This is a great product when it is actually certainly not offered out. Much more costly than the AuraGlow, however a premium versionbuy the GLO Scientific research if it is on call and you possess the funds, otherwise the AuraGlow will not let you down!When you visit the dental professional for teeth whitening therapies, there is actually a likelihood the process are going to entail gel trays as well as light-activated tools.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

The teeth whitening device is initially a little frustrating to utilize, however you. To begin with, you apply the lip ointment offered in the package, at that point put a thin level of the whitening gel onto the front of your pearly whites along with the featured comb. Activate the mouth piece, placed it into your mouth and also quash it as you would certainly on a sporting activities mouth guard till the lights on the unit switch off eight minutes later.

The warm and LED light inside the mouth piece “increase” the whitening activity of the hydrogen peroxide that is included in the gel. You will spend 32 minutes per day on a procedure. This 32 mins is actually divided in to 4, 8-minute sessions in between each session you wash out your oral cavity as well as mouth pieces as well as administer a new layer of the G-Vial gel.

The mouth piece is powered through a console which is asked for ahead of time and worn around your neck so you can easily get around freely during the course of the treatment. Matched up to the 3D bits, the size of the treatment is actually most definitely an additionally (), along with the ultimate whitening result somewhat first-rate. GLO mentions it can easily lighten pearly whites on standard (which possesses a great band to it) and is actually possibly certainly not as well far coming from the reality.

If cost is just one of your main considerations, you’ll would like to take a look at the AuraGlow Whitening Set which is following on our listing. Facts and plan the GLO Science Brilliant Personal Teeth Whitening Tool: Style: Powered applicatorKit: Applicator, ten cylinders of gel, electrical power adapter, billing dock, USB cableUsage: 4 eight-minute uses per dayCourse of therapy: 3-5 daysIntrinsic (blemishes listed below the surface of the pearly whites’s enamel) and also extraneous discolor removalActive Ingredient: Hydrogen peroxideMoyeni Simply True White Pearly Whites Whitening Marker Kit.

The Groom+ Design Staff was not quite certain whether this product trains as a package, however it carries out similar point as the various other items on our checklist, and it is a lot easier to use!The gel inside the whitening marker is made coming from natural substances along with, so there is no pain for those with.Simply, you repaint the gel onto your teeth, allow it sit for 20 minutes, and after that rinse and also brush.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

For a simple patch up on the go, that will definitely bleach teeth eventually. In time your pearly whites brighten if you utilize it daily, obviously, the process will be actually more rapid. Our team do not think this product is actually as efficient as the packages placed over it, but they are actually all made for details time durations while the advantage of the.The pen is actually most definitely worth considering if you do certainly not desire to bother with trays, strips, and also gel.

sells at-home teeth whitening packages that utilize proprietary substances to supply ensured outcomes, without sensitiveness, in just 10 moments each day. The website publicizes Snow spent numerous years as well as much more than $2.3 thousand undergoing trial and error, each of which paid attention to designing “a genuinely cutting edge item that merely functions far better than just about anything else our team have actually seen on the market.” Matched up to various other units, Snow’s Teeth Whitening kit makes use of an LED-filled oral cavity tray that links into any kind of electronic gadget and also quicken your results.

As well as they claim their whitening gel can possibly do every one of this without making use of damaging chemicals or even creature screening. Advertisement With each other, the companyfounded in 2015 as well as partially possessed by NFL superstar Rob Gronkowskipromises to provide the most ideal teeth whitening results cash can easily get. Should you turn into one of their greater than 150,000 worldwide fans, though? Exactly how carries out Snowfall contrast to various other whitening bodies, as well as which choices will deliver one of the most value? Allow’s start by focusing on everything their kit has.

Thereafter, you’ll paint the firm’s exclusive whitening serum onto each tooth, comparable to repainting your nails. Snow features a cutting edge oral cavity rack with their unit, which makes use of copyrighted LED activating modern technology to release ultra-safe insights of light they mention are going to assist whiten pearly whites a lot faster without hurting your oral cavity or body system whatsoever (much more on this later).

Credit Rating: Snow Whitening, Inc. All you need to have to accomplish is actually link the tool to any sort of computer system or smart device and pleasantly insert right into your oral cavity. From there certainly, you’ll maintain it in location for in between 10 as well as 30 minutes, relying on your preferred amount of whitening. Your final action is actually to disconnect the LED rack, take out from your oral cavity, and also wash both the holder and also your mouth.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Contrasted to Snowfall’s present version, the soon-to-be-released system uses the same exclusive whitening formulations however features a space-saving layout that nicely retail stores each element in your washroom. It is actually also travel-friendly if you require to lighten on the go. The greatest technological variation is their new oral cavity holder, which features dual-light innovation; a blue LED for specialist whitening, paired with a reddish LED for doing away with gingivitis-causing germs as well as combating declining gum tissue lines.

When billing (likewise wireless), the Snow web site publicizes it self-sanitizes and also kills 99.9% of bacteria. Here is Snowfall’s All-New unit, which provides a number of new innovations and also a space-saving layout, and also is presently readily available for pre-sale. Credit Rating: Snowfall Whitening, Inc. Finally, Snowfall’s honest package features a mobile application that gives you the chance to establish objectives and also track the tone improvements in your pearly whites, while gaining rewards and cost-free items.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit  Snow Teeth WhiteningSerial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Nevertheless, they do not list any of their active ingredients. Our company got to out to customer care, who quickly replied: “Our team use an exclusive cream, but the active components consist of hydrogen and also carbamide peroxide, along with salt bicarbonate. Toughness variations coming from 8-12% for normal and also 16-19% for the greatest stamina. International models carry out certainly not take advantage of hydrogen peroxide due to country requirements.” Perform the elements in at-home whitening kits generally deliver the exact same stain-fighting energy as a session from your oral professional? After all, they tell our team, “Our outcomes may be reviewed more to a $500-1000 dental expert treatment, at a fraction of the expense as well as performed in the convenience of your property.” The brief answer? Most likely not.

Result Burhenne, “Qualified whitening gel tends to be actually stronger then at-home whitening gel.” To put it simply, coming back to our whitening write-up over, they typically consist of greater peroxide amounts (30%+) contrasted to at-home sets (typically 10-20%). Snowfall tells our company there are actually no adverse effects connected to their Teeth Whitening body as long as you comply with the consisted of strategy of 930 mins daily for in between 21 and also 30 successive days.

Moreover, they promote their creams don’t result in sensitiveness, don’t harm enamel, and don’t include harmful chemicals. In our post concerning selecting a whitening body, we state that the absolute most typical peroxide-related adverse effects mentioned by individuals is level of sensitivity, especially if the gel creates its method onto the periodontals. Certainly not all customers experience it, though.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit  Snow Teeth WhiteningSerial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

The Snowfall Pearly whites Whitening total package sells for $150, along with the newer variation currently accessible for pre-sale at $299. 3, 6, or even nine-packs of whitening cream re-fill wands (2 ml each) are going to cost you between $25 and $75. One, two, 3, and also six-packs of max-strength refills (4 ml each) are actually available for in between $25 and also $65.

Freight is asked for throughout take a look at as well as Snow ships coming from Arizona to much more than 195 countries around the world (Serial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening). Advertisement The firm backs their whitening kits along with a 100-percent results guarantee and also a five-year guarantee. Having said that, their Yield Plan webpage, you can easily certainly not create a gain or even receive a refund: “Our company offer an one hundred% leads assurance, not an one hundred% money-back assurance.

All refunds are actually released as an installment plan (present card). The 100% results warranty means our experts can easily replace your whitening serum if you are actually miserable with your whitening results.” You can known as customer care at (480) 470-6184, although as we summarized above, the only choice our company were actually given was to leave behind a message.

Serial Number Warranty Check Kit  Snow Teeth WhiteningSerial Number Warranty Check Kit Snow Teeth Whitening

According to a 2017 file through NPR, at-home teeth whitening embodies a $ 3.2 billion market, thus there are actually tons of choices to select coming from if you remain in the marketplace. When reviewing each of these rivals, perform you essentially need to have to pay additional for a set like Snowfall that includes an LED-illuminated oral cavity tray? It goes without saying, you will likely invest $400+ over the program of a year if you used their system every various other month for 21-30 times at an opportunity, as routed.